Analysis of green consumer behaviour in tourism: Application of an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour
Give an analysing the data by means of SPSS. The questionnaire is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour.
1) Data Description
• A breakdown of demographic information of respondents (socio-demographic profile of the sample including age, sex, level of education, income and category of green consumer ? see question 14 in questionnaire, based on Swarbrooke and Horner’s shades of green consumers in Appendix 2).
• A discussion of whether the above information has allowed you to meet the sample characteristics required. If you find that the sampled data does not match with the wider population in any respect then you need to address this issue and consider the implications this will have for issues such as validity of your results.
2) Data Analysis (using SPSS)
• Examination of construct reliability and intercorrelations:
– Confirmatory factor analysis
– Calculation of composite reliability and discriminant validity
• Multiple regression, with ‘intention to book environmentally friendly holiday’ as the dependent variable, to determine which of the variables identified in the factor analysis exerts the greatest influence.
• The testing of hypotheses:
H1: Attitude has a positive influence on the intention to book an environmentally friendly holiday.
H2: Subjective norm has a positive influence on the intention to book an environmentally friendly holiday.
H3: PBC has a positive influence on the intention to book an environmentally friendly holiday.
H4: Motivation has a positive influence on the intention to book an environmentally friendly holiday.
H5: Moral norm has a positive influence on the intention to book an environmentally friendly holiday.
H6: The two additional variables (Motivation and Moral norm) significantly contribute to the prediction of the intention to book an environmentally friendly holiday.
• Test if there is a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables (age, sex, education, income) and:
– awareness/knowledge of environmentally friendly holidays,
– attitude towards environmentally friendly holidays,
– willingness to pay more,
– motivational factors
• At the end of this chapter you need to restate the main results and discuss them as they relate to what was known on this topic before you started your investigation. This means going back to the results and findings that you identified in the Literature Review chapter, and discuss whether your results are in some way different, or whether your results simply confirm what was known about this topic before you started your Dissertation
? Please feel free to also add things that I did not mention but could be of relevance to my research project
? Please also use charts and diagrams to illustrate research findings
Questionnaire (can be found in Appendix 5 )
Socio-Demographic information: Questions 1-4
• Gender (male/female)
• Age (18-25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, over 65)
• Highest education level completed (secondary education, A-levels/ technical college, university degree
• Monthly net income (below 1000€, between 1000 and 2000€, between 2001 and 3000€, between 3001 and 4000€, between 4001 and 5000€, over 5001€)
According to StatistischesLandesamt Baden-Württember (2012), the average income in Baden-Württemberg is around 2,350€
According to Anderson and Cunningham (1972), the typical green consumer can be defined as being female, 40 years of age, with a high level of education and economic status above average. The socio-demographic information gained from the survey can aid in testing if this green consumer profile also applies to the people in the area of Göppingen.
Awareness/knowledge: Questions 5-8
• How familiar are you with environmentally friendly holidays?
• How well-informed are you about environmentally friendly holidays?
• Do you know any tour operators that offer environmentally friendly holidays?
• If yes, please name these:
These questions were asked in order to get some information about consumers’ perceived knowledge/awareness of environmentally friendly holidays.
Personal behaviour: Questions 9-10
• What type of holiday do you usually book (economy, mid-priced, luxury)
• Have you ever booked an environmentally friendly holiday?
The first question was asked to get some information about the type of holiday the respondents usually book as it gives some indication of how much they normally spend on their holiday and to see if there is a connection between spending more on holiday and being a green consumer. The second question was asked to get some information about the respondents past behaviour and to see if he or she has any experience with this type of holiday and if there is a correlation between past behaviour and the intention to book an environmentally friendly holiday in the near future.
The following questions are based on my extended model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour:
Intention: Question 11
• Do you intend to book an environmentally friendly holiday in the near future?
Attitude (towards booking an environmentally friendly holiday): Questions 12-14
• I am concerned about the current situation of the environment (gives information about respondent’s level of environmental concern)
According to Bang et al. (2000), the higher consumers’ environmental concern the more willing they are to purchase green products ?intention.
However, several studies have indicated a discrepancy between consumers’ declared positive attitude towards environmentally friendly products and their actual buying behaviour (Kilbourne and Pickett, 2008, Kalafatis et al., 1999, Young et al., 2010). Young et al. (2010) identified this ‘attitude-behaviour gap’ also known as ‘values-action gap’ when 30 per cent of consumers, despite expressing concern about environmental issues, did not translate this into their purchasing habits.
• I believe booking an environmentally friendly holiday is a waste of time and money
• I believe it is important to support the environment by booking environmentally friendly holidays
• I am very interested in booking an environmentally friendly holiday
• I believe my booking of environmentally friendly holidays can help to improve the environment
• I would be willing to pay this extra percentage for an environmentally friendly holiday (0%, 1-5%, 6-10%, 11-15%, 16-20%, over 20%)
According to literature findings, consumers will pay on average around 5 percent more for environmentally friendly products (Schwartz, 1990, Kapelianis and Strachan, 1996, Speer, 1997). This question helps to test if this is true in reality.
• Which of these statements is most applicable to you:
(I know about environmental issues but I am not prepared to make any sacrifices when booking a holiday, I think about environmental issues and try to reduce water consumption e.g. by reusing towels, not having long showers, etc., I use public transport to get to destination and boycott hotels which have a poor reputation on environmental issues, I do not take holidays away from home so as not to harm the environment in any way)
This question is based on Swarbrooke and Horner’s (2007) ‘shades of green consumers’ in tourismframework (see graphic in Appendix 2). This question helps to categorise consumers according to their attitudes towards environmentally friendly holidays.
Subjective Norm: Question 15
• Most people who are important to me think that I should book an environmentally friendly holiday
• It is important to me to be estimated and respected by the people around me
• It is important to me to book an environmentally friendly holiday because most people who are important to me think I should do so
• It is of no importance to me how other people see me
PBC (Perceived behavioural control): Questions 16-17
• I have plenty of opportunities to book an environmentally friendly holiday
• Booking an environmentally friendly holiday is inconvenient
• It is easy to book an environmentally friendly holiday
• Tour operators/travel agencies provide sufficient information about environmentally friendly holidays
• I know where to get information about environmentally friendly holidays
• Booking an environmentally friendly holiday is not an option for me because (it is difficult and time-consuming to obtain information, I do not have the financial resources, I am not prepared to restrict myself when planning my holiday, I am not willing to accept the inconveniences related to this type of holiday (e.g. hotel without swimming pool, not using air travel, etc.), other.
Motivation: Questions 18-19
• What motivates you / would motivate you the most to book an environmentally friendly holiday (a low price, recommendation of family, friends and colleagues, the good feeling of contributing to environmental protection, the belief in the importance of protecting the environment, the wish to improve own image among family and friends)
• I would book an environmentally friendly holiday if: (the price was the same as that of a conventional holiday, it was easier to obtain information, I had more knowledge about the different offers, I received more information from tour operators/travel agencies, other
Moral Norm: Question 20
• I feel morally obligated to contribute to environmental protection
• I feel I should book environmentally friendly holidays if this can contribute to environmental protection
• It would be wrong of me not to book an environmentally friendly holiday
• I would feel guilty if I did not book an environmentally friendly holiday
Problem identification / Recommendations for tourism industry
• In your opinion, what are currently the greatest obstacles connected to booking environmentally friendly holidays?
• What could be done by the tourism industry to combat these?
• Many people, despite being interested in booking environmentally friendly holidays, do not translate this into action. What do you believe could promote the actual purchase of an environmentally friendly holiday?
At the end three open questions were asked in order to get some information about consumers’ opinions about what they perceive to be the greatest issues and what could be done to improve the situation.
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