Biology

Biology

Cell Structure and Function

What is the advantage of being small and why is outer surface area important to a microorganism, ie. what is the ultimate effect?

Cell Membrane:
What is a phospholipid (ie. fatty acid + glycerol)
What parts are hydrophobic? Hydrophilic?
What holds the phospholipids in a membrane together?
What are sterols and hopanoids? How do they differ from phospholipids? What characteristic do they give cell membranes?

How do archaeal and bacterial cell membranes differ?

What is passive diffusion
What is osmosis
What are the 3 types of facilitator proteins and how do they transport molecules?
What is energy-linked transport?
–what are the 3 types of energy-linked transport?
–explain how they work and what type of energy they involve

Cell Wall:
What is the chemical composition of the bacterial cell wall?
Be able to diagram the cell wall showing the repeating polysaccharide units and location of the peptide cross bridges (not detailed, just M + G and where the crosslinks are)

How are Gram + and Gram – cell walls different? Include amt. of peptidoglycan, types of peptide crossbridges, teichoic acid, etc.

What is the unique amino acid found in gram negative cell walls?
What are the components of the gram negative outer membrane?
–what is the general structure of LPS?
–what is the toxic portion?

How are cell walls formed:
What is the name of the carrier molecule for the subunits?
What enzyme makes breaks in cell walls to add new subunits?
What is the final step in cell wall synthesis?
What enzyme do we produce to destroy bacterial cell walls and where does it cleave cell walls?
Where does penicillin destroy cell walls?
Is it possible for a bacterial cell to survive without its cell wall? How and what are these structures called?

How does the archaeal cell wall differ from bacterial cell wall?

DNA:
How is DNA arranged in prokaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells? (Is the DNA randomly coiled?)
Can you differentiate between the terms: chromosome, DNA, gene?

Motility:
What protein makes up prokaryotic flagella?
What are the 3 sections of a flagella
How do flagella move (type of movement and energy source)?
What are the different types of flagellar arrangements
What are runs and tumbles (what direction does the flagellum move for each)?
How does a peritrichous flagellated organism need to do with its flagella to move forward?
What are: chemotaxis, phototaxis, magnetotaxis?
In what types of organisms are gas vacuoles found and what is their function?
What are the 3 types of gliding motility? What do all of them have in common?

How are eukaryotic flagella different from prokaryotic flagella? (include where the energy comes from)

What are pili and how might they function?

What are capsules and do they function?

What are granules and inclusion bodies—what types of molecules are found in them?

Endospores:
What is an endospore?
What are the 4 basic parts of an endospore? And where do they form?
–what are SAPS and calcium dipicolinate

Eukaryotic organelles:
What are mitochondrion and chloroplasts? What is there structure?
What is the endoplasmic reticulum? What is the Golgi apparatus?

What is the theory of endosymbiosis and what is the evidence to support it?
Nutrition and Metabolism

What are the 4 major types of macromolecules? How is a saturated fatty acid different from an unsaturated? What are the 2 types of nitrogenous bases and what are the bases included in each type? Differentiate between base, nucleoside and nucleotide.

Why is free energy important to cells?

What are enzymes and what do they do?
What is oxidation/reduction?
What is a coenzyme?
What is the relationship between free energy and reduction potential?

How does ATP function as the energy molecule for a cell? Why does a cell store glucose for energy instead of ATP?

What are aerobes/anaerobes/facultative anaerobes?

What is a chemoorganotroph?
What occurs in glycolysis?
What is substrate level phosphorylation?
How much ATP and reduced coenzymes are produced in glycolysis?
–what are reduced coenzymes and how do they function?

What is fermentation? What types of products are formed as a result of fermentation and what is their function for the cell?
How do WE use some of these fermentation products?

Do all organisms use the Embden-Meyerhof pathway? Explain.
–be able to recognize other names for glucose fermentation

What is the most common cycle used to begin respiration?
–why is this a cycle?
–how much ATP and reduced coenzymes are generated?
–what is the main product of this cycle?
–what is the fate of reduced coenzymes generated during glycolysis
and the citric acid cycle

How is oxidative phosphorylation different from substrate level phosphorylation?

What is the ETS? What types of proteins are involved in ETS systems? (Be able to recognize general names)
How is the proton gradient generated during ETS?
–what does the proton gradient establish across a cell memb.
–what type of energy is this
What is an ATPase?

Starting with a molecule of glucose, be able to show how a chemoorganotroph growing in aerobic conditions obtains all of its ATP.
What is anaerobic respiration/how does it differ from aerobic (in terms of energy)
–what are types of anaerobic electron acceptors

What is a chemolithotroph? How is energy produced?
What are some “starting” inorganic sources? What is the final electron acceptor?
How do these organisms primarily synthesize their ATP?

What is a phototroph?
What do chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll do? What is a reaction center, ie. what happens there?
What are antenna pigments
What is anoxygenic photosynthesis? What is transferred? What is formed? What organisms use this?
What is oxygenic photosynthesis/Z scheme? What are the 2 photosystems? What is being transferred? What is formed?
What are accessory pigments? Give examples.

What is the Calvin cycle and what does it do? What organisms use the Calvin cycle? (phototrophs AND chemolithotrophs)
Are there other forms of CO2 fixation?

Be able to differentiate between how the different chemoorganotrophs (3 types) get their energy, how chemolithotrophs get their energy, and how the different phototrophs (2 types) get their energy, ie. How do they get their ATP?
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