A separate reference list should be included at the end of every question response using UniSA Harvard referencing conventions.
SECTION A Answer ALL questions in Section A – (10 marks each). DO NOT USE DOT POINTS
1 Social and cultural critics have described the western world as one dominated by capitalism, consumption, media and new technologies. Some questioning has occurred of the ‘modernist’ assumptions that underpin western development, particularly the belief that technological innovation can guarantee progress and the best for all, including the environment. Postmodernism is a perspective or way of thinking that can be seen as a reaction against modernism. Describe postmodern thinking. What are some of the health and physical activity related issues that have evolved from the modern period? Give examples of the ways that these issues can lead to inequities around access and opportunity for health and physical activity. 2 Qualitative and quantitative research approaches have evolved out of different paradigms of thought. Describe and compare a modernist (quantitative) view of conducting research with a postmodern (qualitative) view. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each methodological approach and comment on why qualitative approaches might be employed when investigating social issues around health and physical activity. 3 In a culture where a slender or muscular body symbolises self-mastery, freedom and control, ‘ideal’ male and female bodies have become increasingly powerful. In this context advertising works aggressively to perpetuate feelings of inadequacy and insecurity in the consumer. These cultural pressures foster a desire to control and manipulate our bodies. What are some of the health consequences of the contemporary ideal of a slim or muscular body? 4 Describe how the different childhood experiences of girls and boys come to be structured by gendered practices that encourage children to inhabit and experience their bodies in very different ways. What are the challenges for professionals associated with broadening physical opportunities for both sexes? How might we promote physical activity and sport in particular for girls? 5 “Many forms of deviance in sport are not caused by a disregard or a rejection of social values or norms: instead they are caused by an unqualified acceptance and an unquestioned commitment to a value system framed by what we refer to as the sport ethic” (Hughes & Coakley 1991, p308). Describe the sport ethic referred to in this quote and the conditions that lead to over-conformity. 6 Discuss how and why environmental issues impact on our health and physical activity choices. What courses of action, both individually and collectively can we, as professionals, take to promote sustainable practices around the environment and physical activity?
SECTION B Answer 2 questions only in Section B (20 marks each) DO NOT USE DOT POINTS 1 Ruggiero (1998) defines the process of ‘acculturation’ as the way that culture shapes us. In Australia we are acculturated into thinking that sport and physical activity are inherently worthwhile pursuits. Professional thinking that is influenced by a postmodern paradigm requires us to critically evaluate our ideas and values as well as health and physical activity practices. What does it mean to think critically? What questions do we ask, and what are some of the habits that hinder our thinking? 2 Describe how different experiences come to be structured by social practices that encourage people to inhabit and experience their bodies in very different ways. What are the challenges for health professionals associated with broadening physical opportunities for all? How might we promote physical activity and sport in particular for those from different backgrounds? 3 Participation in lifelong physical activity by the bulk of the population presents one of the biggest challenges to health professionals in the next millennium. Construct an informed argument around the importance of physical activity for all Australians. Why is encouraging people to be active such a complex task? Include in your answer factors that influence participation and ways in which health professionals might contribute to better outcomes. 4 In the context of sport, abuse can be defined as any adult action which results in direct or indirect harm to children. What forms of abuse exist within the realms of physical activity? Select one form and describe the unique factors that contribute towards its occurrence as well as the common factors shared by many forms of abuse in the context of physical activity. 5 Discuss one qualitative methodological paradigm. Identify how the chosen methodology allows us to have a deeper understanding of health or physical activity. Provide an example of how this methodology could be used to answer a health/physical activity research question. 6 Increased government spending on sport has led to increased government and private sector intervention in the direction of sport. Sport has become ‘big-business’ with some suggesting sport had been corrupted. Would you agree or disagree with such a position? Explain and support your response. 7 ‘Eating disorders are not necessarily about food’. Comment on this statement. What are eating disorders about? What factors influence their development? Identify the physical and psychological signs of an eating disorder. 8 The Australian Government commits vast amounts of money towards funding elite sports participation, both on infrastructure and the Olympic Athlete Program. It is the contention that success at the Olympics provides a stimulus to the general public to become more physically active. How do you think public money should be spent in relation to physical activity and participation? Defend your position.
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