Social Behavior

Please answer in THREE SEPaRATE PARAGRAPHS respectively!!! Use this book as the main source!! • Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. (Eds). (2008). Health Education and Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice (4th edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Please I need question one first before Wednesday. Question 2,3 can wait till Friday.

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Quesion 1) Read the Case Study below and answer the direct question stated at the end of the case study. 

History of Tillery, NC 

Tillery, NC, is a rural community in Halifax County, which throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th century was a southern, agricultural, plantation community. Therefore, at the beginning of this century, there were essentially two groups of people living in Halifax county, the white landowners and county officials, and the black day laborers working the farms and living in veritable poverty. In 1934, Tillery was appointed as one of President Roosevelt’s “New Deal Settlement Communities” (1 of 117 across the US). The government bought 18,000 acres of former plantation land and divided it into 40-60 acre tracks of land. These tracks were each provided with a 2/3 bedroom home and all that was necessary for sustenance living, including: a grist mill, a potato curing mill, an orchard, and farm land. In addition, there were classes on farming techniques and literacy, as well as collective farm equipment and a general store provided to the community. Once the community was complete, 300 black families moved in from all over the southeast. The local white powers were concerned about the effect that the new land-owning blacks would have on the existing day laboring blacks. Essentially, they did not want the land-owning blacks to gain power while there was an existing group of blacks dependent upon the white power structure. In 1940, the actual government program failed because of a natural disaster that flooded 10,000 acres of the community’s land. Even though there was tension between the very poor day laboring blacks and the poor land-owning blacks, with the original blacks seeing the newcomers as outsiders and as different, they eventually came together as a single black community. Because of land ownership in this black community, there was a certain amount of freedom from the power structure, enabling them to organize to address issues of concern. Throughout the 1950s and 60s, the residents of Tillery were challenging the county powers on civil rights issues such as busing, schools, and school resources.

Today in Tillery 

Today, the population of Halifax Co. is 55,000, with 52% African American, 44% white, 3% Native American, 1% Asian/Latino (these numbers have changed recently with a influx of Latino farmers). It is the 4th poorest county in the NC. The town of Tillery itself is 98% African American and 75% over the age of 65. As discussed earlier, because of the unique situation of such a large group of land-owning African Americans, there has been a high level of community organizing to address issues important to the community. While there are many social and community groups in Tillery, one important group has been the Concerned Citizens of Tillery. Consisting of various members of the population of Tillery and organized to improve their community, this group has been very successful in addressing the needs of the community on several occasions. At one point the county tried to close the town’s school because of low attendance and move all the students out of town to an extremely rural African-American school. The Concerned Citizens of Tillery refused to allow the school to be shut down. They successfully lobbied against the closing of the school and prevented either from being closed. Other examples of the activities of the Concerned Citizens of Tillery include successfully lobbying the School of Medicine at East Carolina University to establish a People’s Health Clinic in the area in 1987. Essentially, one strength of the Concerned Citizens of Tillery is that they have effective leadership, in the form of a community opinion leader, and a motivation to do what is best for their community. They are a community that goes out to bring in what they need, rather than letting someone else decide what is going to happen to them.

The Hog Industry Hits Tillery 

In the early 1990’s, the county and state governments started promising Tillery that they would bring economic development to their community. While this sounds like a good a idea, in 1992 the hog farming industry came to Tillery en masse. There are clearly questions about why wide-scale farming was placed in this black community and not a white community. Also, while we hear a good bit about the detrimental effects of the hog industry downstream, harming the state’s waterways and wildlife, we do not hear much about the impact on those areas immediately surrounding the hog farms. In Tillery, there are literally tons and tons of hog waste 1000 meters from the town and the homes of its citizens, where the adults work and the children play. In addition to obvious concerns about the filth present above the ground, all of Tillery’s water supply is based on wells, which have been dramatically impacted by the hog waste. So it is clear that there is a major problem for the citizens of Tillery, but the question remains of what to do. In attempting to address this issue, the Concerned Citizens of Tillery determined that a group specifically devoted to the hog industry issue was necessary. Therefore, they established the Hog Round Table. The first thing that they did was to go to the Chamber of Commerce, Economic Development Board, and County Commissioners to inform them about the problem. This is where the Hog Round Table hit its first obstacle. While these “powers” admitted it looked like it could be problematic, they demanded to see the hard data showing that there really is a problem. These groups stated that nothing could be done without utilizing valid data to establish the existence of a problem.

Where you come in to help 

You are a community organizer, trained in public health, and therefore have some experience in data collection, but are primarily interested in community organizing. You are invited by the Hog Round Table to help them address this issue by collecting data and then organizing a community initiative to get something done. Over a period of time, you have worked with the community and really feel a part of what is going on and believe you can help them address the hog problem. You have collected sufficient and significant data showing both the impact of the hog industry on the residents of Tillery and that there is clearly a disproportionate burden of intensive hog operations on the poor and minority people of NC. Yesterday, at 10:00am you made a widespread press release including this convincing data. By 5:00pm you received a letter from the NC Pork Council’s Attorneys asking you to turn over all your records, so they can investigate to see if you have defamed the Hog Industry. With the power and influence of the Hog Industry in NC politics and communities, it is clear that the town of Tillery has a battle on its hands. Still, the only people really interested are those on the Hog Round Table and the Concerned Citizens of Tillery. Now that you have the necessary background information, you are going to put your community activist, community organizing skills to work and address the Hog Industry in Tillery

Questions:

Using strategies of community organizing and empowerment presented in the lecture and in your readings, present 1-2 strategies that would be part of a community intervention to address the hog industry moving into Tillery

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Question 2) Read those two articles below

Consider the Wallerstein & Duran (2007) Preview the documentView in a new window and Minkler (2004)Preview the documentView in a new window articles. What challenges do you expect to face as an outsider and a public health educator, both in organizing the community and in addressing the problem once the community is organized? How can community based participatory research help address these challenges?

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Question 3) from the book Glanz chapter 13

Using the principles and strategies you have learned about community based participatory research (CBPR), identify a public health problem in your neighborhood and create a CBPR intervention to change this public health problem.

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