Home work 7
Please share your thoughts about nursing theory. Which nursing theory do you feel will have the greatest impact on your practice and why. Is there an article that you particularly enjoyed? What was the most challenging discussion question, and which discussion did you enjoy the most?
Post response no later than Wednesday. Responses need to address all components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis, and include peer reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position. Please see grading rubric for additional requirements.
Students are expected to:
1. Post an initial substantive response of 200-250 words to each question.
2. Read postings and engage in the discussion boards 4-5 days per week.
3. Respond to at least two other student’s postings with substantive comments.
Substantive comments add to the discussion and provide your fellow students with information that will enhance the learning environment.
The postings should be at least one paragraph (approximately 100 words) and include references as indicated by the instructor.
4. References and citations should conform to the APA 6th edition.
Remember: Please respect the opinions of others, even if their views differ. In other words, disagree professionally and respectfully.
Plagiarism is never acceptable – give credit when credit is due – cite your sources
- Theory Evaluation
While theory development is a challenging, creative, risk-taking, and imaginative scholarly activity, it requires a sound conceptual and structural framework that can be connected. The assumptions of the theorist must be considered whenever the theory is analyzed and evaluated. The steps in the process of theory evaluation are iterative. Each step is independent yet interdependent. The process of theory development and evaluation in nursing include:
Theory Organization, Linkage and Framework (Construction).
o Identification of concepts
o Contextualizing its components
o Statement about the phenomenon
o Identification of assumptions
o Clarification of the context of the theory
Testing Theoretical Relationships
Approaches for Theory Evaluation
McEwen and Wills (2007) provided an overview of some of the authors of methods for nursing theory analysis. They stated that Rosemary Ellis was one who originally wrote criteria for theories. She listed characteristics such as the scope, complexity, testability, usefulness, implicit values of the theorist, information generation, and meaningful terminology. Further, she warned of losing meanings when concepts are borrowed from other disciplines or used in differing contexts (Marriner-Toomey & Alligood, 2006).
Hardy’s list of characteristics are similar to Ellis’s as she worked to create a standard for theory evaluation, her important contribution was using diagrams to help demonstrate the connections between concepts and frameworks. She emphasized the empirical aspect of evaluating theory (McEwen & Wills, 2007). It is important to note that in the 1970’s qualitative research did not have much importance in nursing (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2005). As such, “empirical” would mean that which could be tested and measured with traditional scientific methods.
Duffey and Muhlenkamp in 1974 wrote a two phase approach to theory evaluation that included analysis and evaluation. The analysis looks at the origin of the problem that leads to the theory, or in what context the theory is formed to what the theory produces. It is significant that they focused on the character of the subject matter dealt with by the theory. The evaluation includes looking at the completeness of the theory and the relationships among the propositions. Their method actually set up questions to assist in evaluating the theory.
Barnum in 1979 with revisions in 1998, offered a criticism of the internal fit of the propositions of the theory to the overall frame and the external criticism of the theory involved with regard to how it relates to the world. Significantly, Barnum added that the theory should distinquish nursing from other professions (McEwen & Wills, 2007).
Fawcett in 1980 wrote a two phase critique method that contained a nonjudgmental examination of the theory, noting similar characteristics as listed by previous authors, and then a judging phase of looking at the theory for its use in context and practical applications. She advocated looking at research reports and applications of the theory (McEwen & Wills, 2007). Fawcett’s method has been widely used.
According to McEwen & Wills, (2007), theory analysis, description, critique and evaluation are terms that are sometimes used interchangeably by various authors for their relevance and applicability to practice and research. The process is often like a research process, and it is systematically used to examine a theory for content, structure, and function or relevance to practice, education
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